This article is a guest post and has been contributed by Drago Topalovic, ITIL & ISO20000 expert.
The first thing to consider when implementing best practices and standards in service management is motive.
Why Should We Do It?
When you provide IT services, you have to be the BEST you can. In other IT areas like development, infrastructure, and business system deployment, you can perform slightly under par and still add perceivable value to a customer’s business. In service management, your good performance is usually taken for granted, and every error is highly visible. Service downtimes adversely impact a customer’s business, and SLA breaches are penalized.
Every resource and every configuration item (CI) has to be utilized efficiently. Business processes and functions have to be organized with defined roles, responsibilities, and action sequences. Ambiguities and a lack of definitions and organization promptly lead to user dissatisfaction. So, IT service organizations should take any help they can get.
Is ITIL Enough?
ITIL is abundant with best practices, describing life as it should and could be in IT service management. You have all the options laid out in front of you – the sky is the limit. Like living in a big city, you can go to theatres, fancy clubs, and whatnot. But, do you? Living with ITIL alone tends to move you to roads more travelled, and to neglect service management components you don’t feel comfortable with. Knowing your ITIL is good; you can competently implement all the interesting processes and functions, and safely ignore the other ones, knowing that you can turn to them when the time comes.
It differs from one type of service provider to the other, but typical evaded processes in IT are financial management, supplier and customer management, and Documentation management.
For some insight on ITIL benefits, please have a look at the article Why ITIL?.
When you live with ITIL long enough, whether you are a managed services company or internal IT in a small/midsize/large company, you start to realize a few downsides of doing ITIL alone:
ITIL certification is personal, and as people come and go, you start to wish for a way to keep your organization’s intellectual property more anchored, instead of being strongly affected by the fluctuation of your staff.
With all the options of best practices, it is hard to get the firm management commitment to what really has to be done, and without it, you are on a slippery slope. There are always more urgent things to attend to.
ITIL 2011 addresses more processes and functions then before, and implementing all of them seems like mission impossible.
It is really difficult to say when enough is enough.
Once you have improved those processes that cause you the most pain, you may realize that your focus shifts to things you didn’t consider important at first. For example, you implement Incident and Change management, and it suddenly becomes obvious to you that your Configuration management lacks the power to support these processes. That’s a good sign that your organization is growing. And, it’s usually a sign that you should start considering ISO/IEC 20000.
ISO20000 – An Opportunity to Grow
ISO/IEC 20000 provides a very strict set of requirements for implementation. The scope can prove to be very demanding for most of the growing IT service companies in the beginning. But, as you mature, you start to consider the advantages of a service management system that takes care of what SHALL be done in order to make you a competent IT service management organization, as opposed to what could or should be done.
At some point, this set of opportunities will start to feel more appealing to an organization.
ISO 20000 Benefits
By implementing ISO/IEC20000, the organization benefits from the following:
Integrated Service Management System (SMS) supporting the vital service management functions.
Organization focuses on all key processes. Measurements and control of integrated SMS brings new perspectives and ideas about organization’s service management business. Since all 16 processes are implemented, combined results from say, Budgeting and accounting with Capacity management will give you the better idea on which customers are more valuable to you.
Better alignment of IT services and the business it supports. Adopting the common language and the knowledge about processes usually helps in building trust and confidence of customers.
Better reputation on the market. Having an ISO20000 certificate is still not a very common thing; it proves you are serious about your business.
ISO/IEC 20000 certificate stays with the company, not individuals. The SMS helps to keep knowledge about service management business within the company, as its intellectual property.
Roles, responsibilities, and ownership of all processes remove bottlenecks and ambiguities in service management domain.
By defining key processes and agreeing about them internally, ISO20000 helps to overcome natural barriers between organizational units. For example, Sales is forced to cooperate more tightly with internal IT in order to offer more cost-effective services to external customers.
Vertical communication in the organization is usually greatly enhanced. Management is involved in the process from the beginning, and the feedback they receive regularly enables better quality of tactical and strategic decisions.
I am fully aware that the above benefits are primarily aligned with an IT management perspective. These are the pains immediately recognized by the IT members of the community. So, I intend to provide a separate post where they will be properly addressed from a business point of view. I would love to see some of the visitors’ comments regarding this.
The certification process for ISO/IEC 20000 is not an easy one. It’s a very demanding project, requiring a lot of resources. That is one of the major reasons it is not a common certificate. On the other hand, this makes it even more appreciated on the market.
If you are an experienced IT organization with good internal knowledge of key ITIL processes, the above-mentioned benefits should be inspiring to consider ISO20000. From my experience, it looks harder than it is. Just take the first step.
Drago is an IT Business Consultant oriented to Service Management and Customer Relationship Management, project management in SW development.
Specialties: ITIL Expert certificate, Implementation of service management tools, methodologies and processes. Preparation and implementation of ISO/IEC 20000.
Q. Hi Tony, can you give a quick intro to your session at ITSM14?
I had the idea after a meal with an old friend (and ex colleague) I hadn’t seen for a few years. He emailed me the following morning saying thank you for re igniting his passion for service management.
It made me think about the conversation we’d had over dinner and I realized people often need a reboot now and again to clear out the negative and re-establish the positive.
Service Management professionals face a wide range of challenges on a daily basis, so a regular boost of positivity coupled with realignment of perspective is essential.
We so often get so tangled up in the mire that we lose sight of what we are really aiming for. The aim tends to end up becoming to just get out of the mire rather than achieve the greatness we originally intended!!!
Q. What impact can passion, or lack of it, have on an organisation?
Passion is infectious. People with passion infect others who then take more interest in their own work and what’s going on around them. The consequences are that positive changes are made which benefit organisations at so many levels.
Continual Improvement attitudes and behaviors become embedded into the day job.
Lack of passion leads to stagnation.
For organisations to improve, not everyone needs to be passionate, but everyone does need to take an interest in what they do and what those around them do as well and have an attitude that nurtures improvement.
Q. Is passion something that can be manufactured or created within an organisation?
It’s not something that can be manufactured but it can be nurtured and encouraged, which in turn begins to create a culture that is of great benefit to the organisation.
Q. What are likely to be the potential pitfalls and/or benefits an organisation may experience with attempting to create a culture of positivity?
Passion is a great catalyst to create positivity. We must remember though that we are dealing with people. It is important to manage how we best utilise it, as over-enthusiasm can have a detrimental effect on what we are trying to achieve. Balance, not suppression, is what’s needed. Benefits are endless. Organisations that have a positive, passionate, culture are able to achieve excellence and more importantly maintain it for the long term.
Tony Brough is acknowledged as a leading expert in the Service Management field and is best known for his pragmatic approach explaining every aspect in easy to understand terms, relating them to his students or customers own business. With over 20 years experience in the service management industry Tony is a certified ITIL Expert and ISO / IEC 20000 consultant and was also one of the first people in the world to become a certified BS15000 consultant.
Tony’s session at ITSM14 is on day two and featured within the ITSM and Agile track. To find out more or to book your conference place please visit itSMF UK
I am undergoing a very personal transformational change right now. I am trying to learn how to eat in the real world and maintain a healthy weight. I had really let myself go.
No exercise, eating too much, eating the wrong things and not caring. The results: 360 lbs.; the inability to walk at least 50 feet without wheezing; acid reflux; and an impressive expanding waistline. I felt horrible. My body simply hurt all the time.
After much self-loathing, I made the decision to change. Now, I control my calories, carbs, fat and protein levels and I get 60 to 90 minutes of exercise in a minimum of 5 days per week. I made my health issues a “big rock” in my life (see Stephen Covey’s “Put your big rocks in first”).
The results: I currently weigh 320 lbs., I’ve lost 4 inches on my waist, and I feel a heck of a lot better.
The funny thing in all of this, people keep asking me what “diet” I’m using. Okay, here it is – I eat less, make better food choices, and exercise as much as I can. Disappointed with my answer? I find that many folks are looking for me to give them some “magical” advice like “oh, I lost the weight by following the Krispy Kreme diet”. There are no silver bullets. You have to eat right and exercise.
So, what’s the point in relation to ITSM?
The point is this; you must build and follow a plan for an ITSM initiative to work. There are no simple solutions or silver bullets to make adoption easy. Be prepared to work hard, suffer some failures, learn from those failures and iterate, just like you do with a diet.
In order to be successful in ITSM adoption (or in your diet) I recommend following the key “exercise and eating” tips and advice listed below.
Don’t fall for hype
“Just follow our simple x step plan every day, and we’ll guarantee you will lose weight”
I’ve seen ITSM blog posts and consulting statements that indicate the same thing “…just follow our advice and you’ll be doing x process in no time” or “buy our product and we guarantee you will be ITIL compliant”. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Any offering of a “quick fix” probably will not work. Think about the long term and what you want the program to achieve. Learn good habits.
I don’t do “diets” but there are items within the multitude of diet plans out there that do make sense for for certain individuals. ITSM is no different.
If something works, adopt it. If it doesn’t, forget it. For example, Problem management as detailed in ITIL® doesn’t fit well with how my organization works. We therefore adopted LEAN 8-step method as the primary way to execute our problem management but use the information in ITIL® to ensure our process is as robust as needed.
Build a plan that works for you and helps you achieve your goals
There are many ITSM frameworks out there and no rules that say you have to use a specific one. My advice is that you read, learn, and research.
You may need to use ITIL®, LEAN, COBIT®, USMBOK®, and/or combinations of the aforementioned to build your plan. Don’t do something just because someone else says you should do it. Know what you are trying to achieve and select the appropriate framework to work toward it.
For example, my company uses many different frameworks along with ISO/IEC 20000, with ISO/IEC 20000 as an indicator of “world class” IT operations. Despite this, we have attempted on four different occasions to start the adoption process for Configuration Management. What we found is teams did not understand what to do with CIs or how to move them through a change process. We therefore took a step back and spent more time looking at our Change process, and are now starting to have tabletop discussions on moving a CI through a change.
In doing this exercise, we found our teams had different execution of change, different ideas on what a CI is, and different ideas on how to move a CI through a change cycle. These discussions gave us the opportunity to drop back and review all the frameworks for a “good fit” to help accelerate what we do.
If the plan is not working, change it
When exercising, eventually your body can become use to a specific exercise and become efficient in the activity. At that point, you can continue doing the same thing, but the results will not improve. An ITSM plan is the same. If your plan is not getting the results you desire, mix it up and try a different approach. Focus on a specific aspect and find the change that helps you get the results you need.
During the adoption of incident management at my company, we had team members onboard who had been doing incident work for many years and yet our design process kept missing key steps we needed to fulfill ISO/IEC 20000 requirements. Clearly we needed a different approach and so we went back to the beginning and built a checklist of items that the design team needed to complete prior to submitting deliverables. This helped us to identify the missing steps and fix the design process.
When it comes to exercising and being healthy, my FitBit gives me all types of data to help me determine if my behaviors match my plan. Data helps us measure where we are against our goals, which is important in any ITSM initiative.
What you measure is up to you, you cannot allow others to dictate what data you need to collect. Identify your goals, and collect and analyze data that helps you reach those goals.
At my company, we ask our service owners to identify “pain points”, the place where their team or their customers indicate something in the process doesn’t deliver the promised goods and/or causes them problems. We have found that focusing on a few key measures and “pain points” leads the service owner and their teams to think more holistically about the service and why they are doing what they do. This organically leads to continuous improvement, brainstorming and discussion about user experience.
Keep the goal in mind
It is easy to get discouraged when you go a couple of weeks without losing any weight, and the same is true in ITSM. Don’t lose sight of what you have done and where you are now.
Sometimes it may seem easier to follow the same path as you always have and get the same (bad) results to achieve quick “outcomes”, but how does this help overall? Remember, incremental improvements over time lead to reaching goals.
One of the toughest issues I have with weight loss is overthinking the situation – I can become my own worst enemy. The same is true with your ITSM plan. Work the plan you built, and if something doesn’t work so what? Try something new! Be mindful of your situation and don’t be afraid to change. It will all work out in the end so just remember to breath and relax.
And a bonus tip!
Be as transparent as possible in any ITSM initiative or project, routinely discussing your success, failure, trails, and tribulations. This will help you to stay grounded and on top of where you really are in your process/project. Use your measurements to remind yourself and others of the progress you have made and make sure you understand the deliverables and timeframes.
ITSM adoption, just like maintaining a healthy lifestyle, can be tough. It takes planning and execution, measurement and analyzing data, and it also takes support. Remember, don’t fall for the hype; always evaluate; build a plan that works for your situation and change it as required; measure your progress; relax; and always keep your end goal in mind.
ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library), a standard framework for managing the lifecycle of IT Services, is sweeping the U.S. Based on a 2011 analysis of 23 ITIL studies, Rob England concluded that the compound annual growth in ITIL adoption was 20%± and that ITIL training attendance increased at a compound annual rate of 30% for the past ten years. Despite this apparent surge of adoption, enterprises continue to struggle with ITIL’s daunting framework.
Recognizing the confusion inherent in ITIL alignment, numerous vendors have created “ITSM assessments” with varying degrees of complexity and debatable value. These assessments draw upon frameworks such as ITIL, CMMI-SVC, Cobit and, occasionally, BiSL or more specific constructs such as KCS and IAITAM. Where does one begin? What is most important? Where will improvement deliver the best payback? How can one ensure that all phases of implementation share a common and scalable foundation?
All assessments follow a pretty basic formula:
Determine and document the current state of ITSM in the organization.
Determine and document the desired state of ITSM in the organization.
Establish a practical path from current to desired state (roadmap).
Simply stated, the objective is to successfully execute the ITSM roadmap, thereby achieving a heightened level of service that meets the needs of the business. But don’t let those vendors through the door just yet because this is where ITSM initiatives go sideways.
Current state, desired state and roadmap mean nothing without first establishing scope and methodology. How comprehensive should the assessment be? Does it need to be repeatable? Which processes and functions should be targeted? Should it be survey-based? Who should participate?
Rather than seeking input from the ever so eager and friendly salespeople, one can follow a simple three-step exercise to determine scope and methodology. These steps, described in the following sections, may save you millions of dollars. I have seen dozens of large enterprises fail to take these steps with an estimated average loss of $1.25M. For smaller enterprises ($500M – $1B in revenue), the waste is closer to about $450,000. The bulk of this amount is the cost of failed projects. In some instances those losses exceeded $10M (usually involving CMDB implementations).
Three Steps to a Meaningful ITSM Assessment
Though these steps are simple, they are by no means easy. For best results, one should solicit the participation of both IT and business stakeholders. If the answer comes easily, keep asking the question because easy answers are almost always wrong. Consider using a professional facilitator, preferably someone with deep, practical knowledge of ITIL and a solid foundation in COBIT and CMMI-SVC.
So, the three steps are really three questions:
Why do you need an ITSM Assessment?
What do you need to know?
How do you gain that knowledge?
Step 1: WHY Do You Need an ITSM Assessment?
IT Service Management aligns the delivery of IT services with the needs of the enterprise. Thus, any examination of ITSM is in the context of the business. If one needs an ITSM assessment, the business must be experiencing pain related to service delivery.
Identify service delivery pain points.
Map each pain point to one or more business services.
Assign a broad business value to the resolution of each pain point (e.g. High, Medium, Low). Divide these values into hard savings (dollars, staff optimization), soft savings (efficiency, effectiveness), and compliance (regulatory, audit, etc.).
Map each pain point to a process or process area.
There should now be a list of processes with associated pain points. How well can the business bear the pain over the next few years? With this preliminary analysis, one should be able to create a prioritized list of processes that require attention.
For now, there is no need to worry about process dependencies. For instance, someone may suggest that a CMDB is required for further improvements to Event Management. Leave those types of issues for the assessment itself.
Step 2: WHAT Do You Need to Know?
Now that the organization understands why an assessment is required (of if an assessment is required), it can identify, at least in broad terms, the information required for such an assessment.
Referring the chart in Figure 2, IT management need only ask four questions to determine the needs of an assessment.
Is ISO/IEC 20000 Certification Required?
If the organization requires ISO/IEC 20000 certification, a Registered Certification Body (four listed in the U.S.) must provide a standardized audit, process improvement recommendations, and certification. For most enterprises, this is a major investment spanning considerable time.
Does Repeated Benchmarking Provide Value?
Does the organization really need a score for each ITIL process? Will the assessment be repeated on a frequent and regular basis? Will these scores affect performance awards? Will the results be prescriptive or actionable and will those prescribed actions significantly benefit the business?
The sales pitch for an ITSM assessment usually includes an ITIL axiom like, “You can’t manage what you don’t measure” (a meme often incorrectly attributed to Deming or Drucker). One must ask if scores are the best measure of a process? To what extent do process maturity scores drive improvements? Not much. Each process has its own set of Critical Success Factors, Key Performance Indicators and metrics. These are far more detailed and effective data points than an assessment score. Ah, but what about the big picture? Again, ITIL and COBIT provide far more effective metrics for governance and improvement on a macro level.
That said, there are some pretty impressive assessments available, some with administrative functions and audience differentiation baked into the interface. However, one should build a business case and measure, through CSFs and KPIs, the value of such assessments to the business.
Do you need an ITSM Strategy and Framework?
Does the organization already have an intelligent strategy for its ITSM framework? Is there a frequently refreshed roadmap for ITSM improvement? For most enterprises, the honest answer to this is no. Numerous Fortune 500 enterprises have implemented and “optimized” processes without strategy, roadmap, or framework. The good news is that they keep consultants like me busy.
To build an ITSM strategy, an organization needs enough information on each process to prioritize those processes as pieces of the overall service workflow.
To gauge the priority of each process, we focus on three factors:
Business value of the process – the extent to which the process enables the business to generate revenue.
Maturity gap between current and desired state – small, medium or large gap (scores not really required).
Order of precedence – is the process a prerequisite for improvement of another process?
To complete the strategic roadmap, one will also need high-level information on ITSM-related tools, integration architecture, service catalog, project schedule, service desk, asset management, discovery, organizational model, business objectives, and perceived pain points.
Are You Targeting Specific Processes?
To some extent, everything up to this point is preparation and planning. When we improve a process, we do that in the context of the lifecycle. This task requires deep and detailed data on process flows, forms, stakeholders, taxonomy, inputs, outputs, KPIs, governance, tools, and pain points.
As this assessment will be the most prescriptive, it will require the most input from stakeholders.
Step 3: HOW Do You Gain that Knowledge?
Finally, the organization identifies the assessment parameters based on the data required. Similar to the previous step, we divide assessments into four types.
ISO/IEC 20000 Certification
The only standardized ITSM assessment is the audit associated with the ISO/IEC 20000 certification (created by itSMF and currently owned and operated by APM Group Ltd.). The journey to ISO 20k is non-trivial. As of this writing, 586 organizations have acquired this certification. The process is basically measure, improve, measure, improve, ………. , measure, certify. Because the purpose of improvement is certification, this is not the best approach to prescriptive process optimization.
Vendor-Supplied ITSM Assessment
The administration, content, and output of ITSM assessments vary wildly between vendors. In most cases, the ITSM assessment generates revenue not from the cost of the assessment but from the services required to deliver the recommended improvements.
Rule #1: “If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll probably end up somewhere else” (Lawrence J. Peter). Without a strategy and roadmap, assessments will lead you to a place you would rather not be.
Rule #2: The assessment matters far less than the assessor. When seeking guidance on ITSM optimization, one needs wisdom more than data. A skilled assessor understands this workflow in the context of a broader lifecycle and can expand the analysis to identify bottlenecks that are not obvious from an assessment score. An example is Release Management. The Service Desk may complain that release packages are poorly documented and buggy. Is that the fault of the Release Manager or is it a flaw with the upstream processes that generate the Service Design Package?
Rule #3: Scores are only useful as benchmarks and benchmarks are only useful when contextually accurate (e.g. relative performance within a market segment). Despite the appeal of a spider diagram, avoid scored assessments unless compelled for business reasons. Resources are better spent analyzing and implementing.
Rule #4: An assessment without implementation is a knick-knack. Validate the partner’s implementation experience and capability before signing up for any assessments and be prepared to act.
Rule #5: A free assessment is a sales pitch.
Rule #6: A survey-based assessment using a continuous sliding scale of respondent perception is a measure of process, attitude, and mood. So is a two year old child.
Rule #7: In ITSM assessments, simpler is better. Once a vendor decides that the assessment needs to produce a repeatable score, the usefulness of that tool will decline rapidly. If you doubt this, just look under the covers of any assessment tool for the scoring methodology or examine the questions and response choices for adherence to survey best practices.
Strategy and Roadmap Workshops
Enterprise Service Management strategies save money because not having them wastes money. Without guiding principles, clear ownership, executive sponsorship, and a modular, prioritized roadmap, the ITSM journey falters almost immediately. Service Catalogs and CMDBs make a strategy mandatory. For those who lack an actionable Service Strategy and Roadmap, this is the first assessment to consider.
An enterprise needs an experienced ITSM facilitator for strategy workshops. Typically, the assessment team will perform a high-level process assessment, relevant tool analysis, framework architecture integration study, and a handful of half-day workshops where the gathered information is molded into a plan for staged implementation.
Targeted Process Assessments
Organizations know where the pain points are and have a pretty good sense of the underlying factors. The assessor finds this knowledge scattered across SMEs, Service Desk personnel, business line managers, development teams, project office, and many other areas. The assessor’s value is in putting these puzzle pieces together to form a picture of the broader flows and critical bottlenecks. Through the inherited authority of the project sponsor, the assessor dissolves the organizational boundaries that stymy process optimization and, with an understanding of the broader flow, assists in correctly identifying areas where investment would yield the highest return.
For these assessments, look for a consultant who has insightful experience with the targeted process. An assessment of IT Asset Management, a process poorly covered in ITIL (a footnote in the SACM process), requires a different skill set than an assessment of Release and Deployment Management or Event Management.
The output from a Targeted Process Assessment should be specific, actionable, and detailed. Expect more than a list of recommendations. Each recommendation should tie to a gap and have an associated value to the business. Essentially, IT management should be able to construct an initial business case for each recommended improvement without a lot of extra effort.
Organizations are investing tens of millions in ITSM assessments. I have seen stacks of them sitting on the shelves of executives or tucked away in some dark and dusty corner of a cubicle. Whether these assessments were incompetent or comprehensive, as dust collectors, they have zero value.
How prevalent is the lunacy of useless ITSM assessments? From my own experience and from conversations with others in the field, vendors are selling a lot of dust collectors. Nobody wants to be the person who sponsored or managed a high-profile boondoggle.
So the advice is this.
Don’t waste time on scores because there are better ways to sell ITSM to the board than a spider diagram.
Develop and maintain an ITSM Strategy and Roadmap. As Yogi Berra once said, “If you don’t know where you’re going, you’ll wind up somewhere else”.
Assessing and implementing need to be in close proximity to each other.
Get an assessor with wisdom who can facilitate a room full of people.
Finally, follow the three steps before you let the vendors into your office.
The journey may have many waypoints but let’s just make it once.
Liam McGlynn is a Managing Consultant at Fruition Partners, a leading cloud systems integrator for service management and a Preferred Partner of ServiceNow.
Maturity assessments are popular for kick-starting ITSM initiatives. It allows an organization to spot gaps and prioritize areas for improvement.
However, the half-life of a maturity assessment is remarkably short and the impact of the glossy report can quickly fade. The key messages and compelling recommendations can soon be lost in the noise of other projects and new fires to fight.
What stops the shiny benchmark report from collecting dust on the shelf?
Michael Nyhuis, Managing Director of Australian firm Solisma, claims the answer to keeping assessments alive is to transform them into continual service improvement projects.
Their solution Service Improvement Manager (SIM) provides a workspace for teams to baseline their maturity against various standards or frameworks, identify areas for improvement, document risks and then assign tasks to ensure progress.
Built-in assessments include ITIL, ISO 14001, ISO/IEC 27001, ISO 9001, COBIT, and ISO/IEC 20000.
The hosted solution has four main areas:
Assessments – Compliance and Maturity, Baseline Reporting, Benchmarking, Prioritized Improvements
Explorer – Management System, Policies and Procedures, Roles and Functions, KPI’s and Metrics
Elevator Pitch Video (<2 min):
I like this collaborative way of working; spreadsheets and email ping-pong are replaced with progress (Assuming the team jumps on board with the idea). No great ideas are allowed to slip through the cracks and an audit trail of improvements and staff suggestions are kept in one place. SIM also allows users to track improvement projects according to weighted scores and ROI.
This is a good presentation framework for benchmarking against standards and ensuring good ideas and opportunities for improvement are put into action. It would be good to see the team behind SIM put more depth into the Assessment libraries; the current questioning format is open to subjective opinion and the individual rigor of the auditor. Since it is a cloud based offering, surely there is the opportunity shared intelligence and the ability to benchmark organizations against each other as well as standards? For example a company could benchmark themselves against companies of a similar size in a similar vertical sector as well as a standard.